The function and science of the avian ear



Do Chickens have ears? Yes! And in this article I will explain how they work.

Even though chickens ears are seen only as small,  fleshy red or white earlobes, or auriculars (also known as ear coverts), the inner ear channels and amplifies sound, and plays a significant role a one of the senses.

Near the auriculars and below and behind the eye, the ear is located. The auriculars channel sound waves into the ear opening,  and towards the eardrum, a thin membrane that vibrates in accordance with the sound waves. The waves are passed down the columella, one of the smallest bones in the avian body, and transmitted to another membrane called the oval window via the cochlea in the middle ear. The cochlea is filled with fluid, and tiny hairs called cilia are attached to its walls. They move with the sound vibrations, as blades of grass do in the wind. Vibrations are translated into electrical impules, and sent to the brain via the auditory nerve.

When human cilia are damaged, they never re-grow, and so throughout life, hearing slowly decreases. The same happens in birds, right? WRONG!!! Birds can regenerate their cilia!!!

Avians also have semicircular canals, the saccule and utricle, which regulate balance, just as they do in humans.

I hope this was interesting, feel free to browse my website!

 

Banish Bad Behaviour!! How-to Have Harmonious Hens!!!

Banish Bad Behaviour!!

In general, chickens are social animals, living in peace and harmony. When a new bird is introduced, this harmony is temporarily disturbed as the hens squabble to sort out their pecking order. The pecking order is the heirachy by which chickens live. The hens have a little squabble, and the hen that wins is the dominant hen. She gets access to the food and water first, and can put any hen who dares confront her back in her place with a sharp peck. On the other hand, the lowest ranking hen gets to go to the food last, and can be pecked at by any hen. Because of this system, hens live in peace, but when the balance is upset, peaceful Poppy can turn into ferocious Frostie.

In this article, I will cover a few points of bad behaviour and give some tips on how to deal with it.

 

Excess noise

It is usually the cockerel who makes the most noise, while crowing, this can only be avoided by not keeping a cockerel. Cantrary to popular belief, it is not necessary to keep a cockerel to get eggs. The cockerel is only needed to fertilize eggs. Sometimes, a hen will make lots of noise, when she has layed an egg. If this is her habitual egg laying noise, it is not possible to stop her from making the noise, but a few steps can be taken to reduce the amount of noise she makes. These include:

  • Reduce boredom (see below)
  • Reduce stress
  • Practise good husbandry

 

Boredom

Overcrowding and small pens can cause boredom, which often manifests itself as feather pecking in adults and foot pecking in chicks. Chickens are attracted to red, (which is why feeder bases are often red), so if blood is drawn cannibalism can be the result. You should always keep some genitian violet spray handy because this is antibiotic, and stains the wound purple, to stop the chickens from attacking the hen.

Boredom can be prevented or alleviated by;

  • Scattering grain over the ground to encourage them to forage ‘naturally’
  • Hanging up bunches of green leaves for them to peck at
  • purchasing, and hanging up blocks of seed

 

Fighting

This often happens when two cockerels come in contact with each other. This is why cockerels should be kept apart. This takes place over hens, territory, etc.

Fighting can also be found with hens, when a new hen is introduced, for example. This is done to establish the pecking order. Once this is established and all the hens know where they stand, peace will return.

Egg eating is addressed here. Corresponding section highlighted pink.


Egg Laying in Chickens


Even as a chick a hen has all the eggs she will ever lay in her ovaries, in an immature form called  rudimentary egg cells (yolks- to- be ).
How quickly this supply is used up depends on breed, feeding, housing and hygiene.
If you use an artificial light to keep your hens laying through the winter their store of rudimentary cells will be used up faster. In her first year, a hen lays the largest amount of eggs that she will ever lay in one year, although the total weight of the eggs she lays stays roughly in her first and second year because in her second year, although the individual number decreases, the size of the eggs increases.

The size of the hen barely affects that of her egg. Take Wyandottes and Dutch
bantams for an example. In the picture the egg above is that of a Wyandotte
while the one below is from a Dutch bantam and Wyandottes are many times
the size of a Dutch bantam.

Colour also varies greatly from white to dark brown with beige, cream, blueish,
Greenish and pinkish at various ends of the spectrum!
In the formation of the egg the pigment is added last.
A yolk is released from the ovary and the albumen (egg white) forms around it, covered with a membrane.
The egg rotates through the body, giving it its form and then the shell is formed.
Last but not least the pigment is added.

There is a time in the year when hens will take a break from laying. Some people switch to cheeper  food because  the hens arent laying, but that is the wrong thing to do. By taking a break, the hens are recharging their batteries, so if anything, they should be fed better food!

You must have an adequate nestbox, or the hens will go and find their own place to lay, sometimes in a bush, or in a hedge or, more frustratingly, under the shed! Nestboxes should have a ‘lip’ at the front to stop the litter spilling out. They should be about 30cm wide and 40cm long. they should have 40cm walls to give the hen privacy, because, hens like quiet, peaceful, dark places to lay.

If you collect eggs daily, your hens shouldn’t get a chance to taste an egg but if they do they will probably start pecking open freshly laid eggs. A dark nestbox helps to prevent this behavior. Once they acquire this habit they are unlikely to stop unless you interfere, you can (most of the time) stop this behaviour by making a hole in an egg, spilling its contents on the nest box floor and adding non-toxic foul tasting liquid like mustard and chilli pepper.

Reduce stress, dont have bright lights around the nestbox. Chickens may also eat eggs because they are not getting enough calcium, so it is worth providing a calcium supplement, in liquid form to add to water, or as oyster shell grit. If this doesn’t work you can make a double bottomed nest box with sloping floor where the egg rolls down a crack to the bottom floor where soft material breaks its fall, so that it is out of the chickens reach.

To find out more about eggs and their anatomy and science click here.

Chicken Breeding- An Introductory Guide to Breeding Chickens

 

Artificial Hatching

Breeding Flocks

Broodiness

Fertilization

Hatching Without a cockerel

Natural Hatching

Recognizing broodiness

Summary

 

 

Breeding flocks

Whether for home breeding or commercial purposes, if you want your chickens to have chicks you need to choose a good, healthy breeding flock. This involves selecting quality birds, which must be healthy, and must also conform to their breed standard.
You should choose birds that are 100% healthy. Their feathers should be shiny and smooth and they should have clear eyes and nostrils.
The maximum number of hens you can have with one cock depends on the breed. With big placid breeds like Brahmas you can normally keep two to five hens with one cock, while with a light, slender, very active cock you can keep up to ten or even twelve hens!

Chickens must be healthy, and conform to their breed standard before you can even THINK about adding them to your Breeding Flocks.

Fertilization
All hens that are to be used for breeding should be at least one year old as when they are one year of age they reach full maturity and have generally got better hatching and laying rates. Even if they are laying before this age, making them go through the stressfull process of raising chicks may have detrimental effects on their development if they are not yet fully developed.
If your cock becomes infertile, don’t worry, as infertility whether in old or young is normally temporary. It could be that he is too fat and therefore not in good breeding condition. Also, it could have something to do with the time of year. Some cocks are active all year round and others only in the breeding season. If, however, he is infertile for more than a couple of months, especially if he is old, it may be time to consider a new cock.
Mating in chickens is called treading. An active cock is one who mates his hens a lot; a non-active cock is one who doesn’t mate them at all. To tread a hen the cock mounts her and grips her neck feathers. To pass sperm from cock to hen they join sex openings and the hen can then receives the sperm. Many eggs can be fertilized by just one treading, as it is possible for the sperm to stay alive for more than ten days.

Frequently trodden hens often have bare patches on their neck and back where he has ripped her feathers out due to his vigorous activities. This can be remedied by moving the cock to a seperate run for a while, or adding more hens to his flock.
Hatching Eggs
Egg hatching can be done with a broody hen or with an incubator. The latter is an option for mass production, or for people who dont have a broody, while the former is natural and is done by people who keep hens as a hobby.

Artificial Hatching

Some incubators only need water added to keep the embryos moist as they automatically turn the eggs, regulate the temperature and do everything else for you, whereas the more basic incubators require you  to turn the eggs and set temperature yourself. It is helpful to mark the eggs with a cross on one side and a circle on the other so that you know which side to tun them onto.
Eggs should be turned over the pointed end three times a day so that the embryos don’t stick to the shell. This should be done to all eggs that are intended for hatching, even if they are just being stored in boxes. It is best to place the eggs with the tip pointing inwards. Once the eggs have been put in leave the incubator lid on all the time unless you are turning the eggs. In many incubators, there will be two water compartments in the middle. Fill one of them up but leave the other. In others, there may be only one. Fill this up part of the way, as instructed (in instruction manual).

Eight days into the incubation period it is useful to find out if the eggs are fertilized.You can find out using a candling lamp, a specialist lamp that you can buy either from incubator specialists or an animal feeds merchant. Candling lamps should be used in a very dark spot, otherwise you cant see anything! Hold the lamp against the egg. If you see a dark spot that moves away from the light, you’ve got a live embryo. Sometimes all you see is a dark spot but other times you see a maze of blood vessels. If you see a spot of blood it could either be a dead embryo or an infertile egg (in which case the spot of blood is probably the ‘meat spot’ which is caused by the rupture of a blood vessel during the eggs formation in the hen.) All infertile (clear) or dead (blood ring, blood spot, dark ‘thing’ sticking to the shell*,) eggs should be disposed of (best on the compost where they will be broken down).

*There is an exception to this. sometimes these can be live embryos, the dark thing being the vitelline membrane ( full of veins and arteries), which resembles the placenta in humans. If this is the case you will see a dark spot move away from the light within the dark ”thing”.

Two days before the chicks are due, stop moving the eggs and fill the second compartment with water to aid hatching. This will cause more humidity to build up in the incubator. This is essential for the chicks to pip.
Be patient, as hatching can take as long as two days, so if they are a day too early or too late don’t worry!
There are two membranes in an egg, one inside the shell and the other around the chick.
When hatching, the chick rolls around and takes the yolk sacks and blood vessels inside it. If a chick is having difficulties, some people help them while others are strongly against it, for they say if the chick is weak it should be left to destiny. If you think any of your chicks are weak do not try to help them out by cracking the shell in any place because if they have not done their rolling antics, it makes it all even harder, if not impossible!

For twenty-four hours after hatching chicks can live without food. This does not mean that you should not give them food, once they are dry and in a box they should have access to food!!! It is best to leave the chicks in the incubator until they are totally dry.
Your chicks may start lying around in strange positions because they need to rest and they don’t know immediately how to lie properly. Once they are totally dry, carefully put them into a box with shallow sawdust, a very shallow bowl of water and a shallow rimmed food tray. They should have an infra red lamp and a shelter under the lamp where they can get warmth and shade.
Eventually, with time the chicks will get the hang of standing, grooming and lying down!
Broodiness
Having a broody hen has many advantages over artificial hatching. Whereas, among other things, a hen can teach her chicks how to survive an incubator is just a humming machine. The temperature in an incubator can fluctuate or there could be a powercut, ending the embryos life. Despite this incubators have their own advantages, chicks can be hatched without a broody hen and through lots of handling, the chicks also become much tamer.

Breeding Without a cockerel:

Believe it or not, this can be done. You need a broody hen, suitable housing, time and patience, but not a cockerel! How does this work? You buy hatching eggs! These should be bought from a reputable breeder. They shoukd also NOT be purchased online, and certainly NOT from eBay. You should ensure the eggs are not older than 7 days, and dont get them ent through the post! Even if they all come through in one piece, they will have taken a battering during transport, from which they will never recover, regardless of the amount of ”Fragile. Handle with care” notices the box is adorned with!!!
How to recognise Broodiness

  • A broody hen sits on the nest for long periods of time sometimes refusing to leave it.
  • Being aggressive to other hens or her handler.
  • Certain parts of the abdomen and breast become featherless (‘brood patches’).
  • She makes ‘clucking’ noises.
  • She puffs herself up when anyone or anything approaches

Natural Hatching
Using a broody hen to hatch eggs is an easy option, for all you have to do is wait (and of course, tend to the hen).
It is best to separate a broody hen from the rest as otherwise other hens will come and lay more and more eggs and they will get mixed up and your hen will sit on far too many eggs, which will all be due for different dates, so when her first chicks hatch, there will be lots more half brooded eggs!
Keeping two or more broodies in the same cage is no good either as they may start steal each other’s eggs and chicks!!!

Broody hens should have access to food and water at all times. It is ideal to keep them in an ”ark” house, that is low to the ground, so that they can have access to a bit of leg stretching space, and room for the chicks to explore without getting mixed up with the other chickens.

SUMMARY!

  • Only breed from healthy birds
  • If you have not got a cockerel, but do have a broody hen, you can buy hatching eggs.
  • Always read your incubator manual if you choose to use one
  • Broody hen are the most natural way to raise chicks
  • A broody must have food and water at all times!
  • Goodluck, and have fun!

And lastly, have fun with your chickens, whether it is to breed, for eggs or for exhibition!!!

Why not take a look at our other chicken care pages, they are loaded with information that you will need and treasure when you keep your own birds!